Why were spices so valuable in 1600s?
The value of spices was determined not only by their taste and status as luxury items, but also their medical properties and the fantastic legends attached to their production. Spices were believed to have important medical qualities; spices were ingredients in medieval pharmaceuticals.
One of the reasons nutmeg was so valuable and costly is because it took five years for the seeds to grow.
They were of high value because of their relative geographical scarcity. Spices could only be grown in the tropical East, in the South of China, Indonesia as well as in Southern India and Sri Lanka.
Medicinal uses were attributed to them, they had ritual use in Catholicism where they were used for incense and other purposes, and they were a great means of showing off one's wealth. This created great demand for spices, and those who could afford them used them lavishly.
They were considered an internal warming herb, which helped dispel cold and warm the body. They were used as tonics and stimulants and were prescribed as a digestive aid and antiseptic. Cloves were used to treat a wide range of ailments including intestinal distress, impotence, diarrhea, vomiting, and cholera.
They were expensive and a real luxury product. Spices originated far away from the regions where they were in demand, in the Mediterranean and across Europe. They came from tropical climates, in areas of high humidity and high temperatures, and were very expensive to transport.
According to the ethno-medical literature, nutmeg seed oil was used for intestinal disorders by Indians, in embalming by Egyptians, and to cure plague by Italians. In ancient times, nutmeg seeds were used in medicines as an aphrodisiac, abortifacient, and anti-flatulent, a narcotic, and as a means to induce menses.
Some spices were once worth more than their weight in gold
Today, every modern kitchen has a spice rack. But during the 17th century, nutmeg was worth more than its weight in gold. Medieval Europe was obsessed with Indonesian spices as it helped preserve food and add flavors to its cuisine.
In the 17th century, it was those living in the Banda Islands who owned the monopoly on nutmeg. At the time, the spice was worth more by weight than gold, so the 1.5-ounce bottle you have in your kitchen would be worth $2,800.00 at today's prices. Nutmeg comes from the fruit of the Myristica fragrans tree.
Clove was the most valuable spice in Europe during Magellan's day. It was used to flavor food, but Europeans also believed that its essence could improve vision, its powder could relieve fevers and that it could enhance intercourse when mixed with milk.
Why was nutmeg so popular?
Thought to have the power to cure everything from the plague to flatulence to the common cold, nutmeg was "the most coveted luxury in seventeenth-century Europe, a spice held to have such medicinal properties that men would risk their lives to acquire it."'
Aside from its many culinary uses, nutmeg contains powerful anti-inflammatory plant compounds that act as antioxidants. These may improve mood, blood sugar control, and heart health, though more research is needed on these effects in humans.
A few were kept back to teach the conquerors how to grow nutmeg. By the time they were finished; the greed of the developed nations was physically evident; the islands became plantations, clean of crops, villages, and people. The spice trade had extinguished native life.
Pepper has been used as currency, and legend has it that Attila the Hun demanded it as ransom from Rome. In 77 AD, Pliny the Elder wrote about how it drained the Roman Empire of 50 million sesterces (ancient Roman money) every year, and even today, pepper continues to be the most traded spice in the world.
By the end of the 12th century, nutmeg became generally known to Europeans. It is sold whole or grounded to be used mostly for savory dishes, pickles and ketchups. Nutmeg's essential oils contain bactericidal, fungicidal and insecticidal activities, which was why it was used by Europeans to preserve food.
Records of use in China and Syria go back over 2,000 years. Cloves were brought to Europe around the 4th century by Arab traders, but they were not popular there until the Middle Ages, when they were used to mask the flavor of spoiled foods, and were heavily traded by Arab sailors.
From the eighth century on, cloves became one of the major spices in European commerce. During the late Middle Ages, cloves were used in Europe to preserve, flavour, and garnish food.
Cloves are a spice commonly used in cooking. They are also available in gels, creams, and mouthwashes. Cloves have been used in traditional Chinese medicine and Ayurvedic medicine. They've been studied for lowering blood sugar and dental pain or toothache relief.
It was reintroduced to Spain by the Arabs in the 10th century, and gained esteem in the cuisine of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Saffron is still highly sought after and the most expensive spice in the world.
- Saffron. Saffron is derived from the stigmas of the crocus flower and is known for its intense, earthy flavor. ...
- Vanilla. ...
- Green Cardamom. ...
- Nutmeg. ...
- Black Pepper. ...
- Cloves. ...
- Turmeric. ...
- Star Anise.
What were the most expensive spices during the spice trade?
Unchallenged at the top of list of the most expensive spices historically, is pepper. This spice is the most often used spice in the world today, but for centuries it was also the most expensive. Pepper was once so valuable that there were armed conflicts around its growing areas.
If you listen to my story you'll hear the gruesome, grisly tale of how the Dutch tortured and massacred the people of the nutmeg-producing Banda Islands in Indonesia in an attempt to monopolize the nutmeg trade. So, why was nutmeg so valuable?
They also used nutmeg, mace and cloves. These were more expensive because they were rarer and were used more scarcely. They did provide the host with an image of prestige when they were used in dishes for guests.
In 12th century Europe and into the Middle Ages, nutmeg served as medicine to bring on menstruation and as an abortifacient and was reputed to have hallucinogenic qualities.
Apart from its flavours, its medicinal properties were highly valued. Many people also believed that it was a cure for the plague. Back then, nutmeg was only cultivated in the Banda Islands (also known as the Spice Islands)–a small group of ten islands in the Indonesian archipelago.
Saffron, The Spice More Expensive Than Gold.
Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world. Produced from the stigma of the autumn flowering purple crocus (Crocus sativus), it has at points in history been worth three times the price of gold. Like all rare and valuable commodities, saffron has a history rich with legend.
How much nutmeg is safe per day? While there are no specific guidelines on how much nutmeg you should have per day, its recommended that you should not exceed 1 to 2mg a day. Studies suggest that toxic reactions occur when taken at 5g and above.
Nutmeg was worth more than its weight in gold. It was extremely expensive because it only came from such a tiny place. Mike Cerre: That tiny place was one of the Spice Islands in the Banda Sea in between Eastern Indonesia.
The earliest evidence of use of nutmeg comes in the form of 3,500-year-old potsherd residues from the island of Pulau Ai, one of the Banda Islands in eastern Indonesia.
What are two facts about cloves?
Cloves are a versatile spice that add flavor while also providing health benefits. They are high in antioxidants, may help regulate blood sugar, can kill bacteria, and more. Cloves are the flower buds of the clove tree, an evergreen also known as Syzygium aromaticum ( 1 ).
Spices were among the most valuable items of trade in ancient and medieval times. As long ago as 3500 BC the ancient Egyptians were using various spices for flavouring food, in cosmetics, and for embalming their dead. The use of spices spread through the Middle East to the eastern Mediterranean and Europe.
A team of archaeologists from UCL have discovered the first empirical evidence of cloves and black pepper to have been found in Sri Lanka, suggesting that exotic spice trade in the region dates back to as early as 600 AD.
Nutmeg gained a lot of popularity in the late 1500s as a treatment for plague, and became even trendier among European elites once they discovered its hallucinogenic properties (which are still a thing, according to The Atlantic). Also, spices were vanishingly rare back then, adding to the illusion of product scarcity.
Nutmeg is more widely used in Black diaspora cooking because of its history in African and Caribbean cuisine. Beyond the United States and its use in desserts, nutmeg is used in savory cooking as well. It is an essential part of spice blends like garam masala and quatre épices.
Aromatic Profile: Light, very fresh, warm, spicy-sweet body note that is rich and highly aromatic with a terpene-like top note; has a warm, woody drydown.
Yes. Nutmeg is considered safe during pregnancy. It can be used to add flavour to many dishes.
Due to its anti-secretory activity, it reduces the loss of fluids and electrolytes from the body. Nutmeg is useful to control diarrhea.
Whole nutmeg can be freshly ground and added to dishes with a microplane or grater, but the spice is also available already ground. Nutmeg is a common ingredient in many cuisines, including European and Indian.
Pepper, a very important spice grown in South India was known as black gold in the Roman Empire.
What is the oldest spice known to man?
Cinnamon is an ancient spice that predates the recorded history of culinary applications of all spices. As such, it has been dubbed the “world's oldest spice”, which may be a warranted title, knowing that because it was found to be included in Egyptian embalming recipes.
A summary of ancient Egyptian medical practices, the Ebers Papryus (1500 BC), cited medical treatments consisting of caraway, coriander, fennel, garlic, mint, onion, peppermint, poppy, and onion (4). Onion and garlic were of particular importance.
Historically, grated nutmeg was used as a sachet, and the Romans used it as incense. Around 1600 it became important as an expensive commercial spice in the Western world and was the subject of Dutch plots to keep prices high and of English and French counterplots to obtain fertile seeds for transplantation.
Nutmeg's value wasn't just culinary; it was believed to have medicinal properties, including as protection against the bubonic plague that periodically wiped out large chunks of the population.
Nutmeg seeds show strong antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, as well as against various pathogenic fungi. Antimicrobial activity is contributed by β-caryophyllene, α-pinene, β-pinene, p-cymene, and carvacrol.
One of the major motivating factors in the European Age of Exploration was the search for direct access to the highly lucrative Eastern spice trade. In the 15th century, spices came to Europe via the Middle East land and sea routes, and spices were in huge demand both for food dishes and for use in medicines.
Spices were among the most expensive and in-demand products of the Middle Ages, used in medicine as well as in the kitchen. They were all imported from Asia and Africa. Venetian and other navigators of maritime republics then distributed the goods through Europe.
Over the years, spices and herbs were used for medicinal purposes. They were also used as a way to mask unpleasant tastes and odors of food, and later, to keep food fresh (3). Ancient civilizations did not distinguish between those spices and herbs used for flavoring from those used for medicinal purposes.
Because spices are expensive when they reach their destination. That is one of the best ways to be profitable, sell a good for which there is a small or restricted supply and a wealthy stable demand.
Pepper: Pepper was one of the most valuable spices during medieval times, and its price could fluctuate greatly depending on trade routes and availability. In some cases, pepper was used as currency.
What were the most important spices in the spice trade?
For millennia, only a very select handful of goods were transported great distances across the world in trade – among the most widespread were the spices cinnamon, pepper, clove, nutmeg and mace. The rise and fall of nations was tied closely to the acquisition and distribution of these spices.
The Value of Spices By the mid-1400s, Europeans had several motives for exploration. For one thing, they wanted direct access to the spice-growing areas of the world described by Marco Polo. Because of the monopoly held by Arab traders and Venetian merchants, spices were very valuable throughout Europe.
During the Middle Ages, spices were as valuable in Europe as gold and gems and the single most important force driving the world's economy. The lack of refrigeration and poor standards of hygiene meant that food often spoiled quickly and spices were in great demand to mask the flavour of food that was far from fresh.
In its day, the spice trade was the world's biggest industry: it established and destroyed empires, led to the discovery of new continents, and in many ways helped lay the foundation for the modern world.
The earliest written records indicating the use of herbs and spices come from ancient Egyptian, Chinese, and Indian cultures. They were used for medicinal purposes and to flavor and preserve foods. Today, herbs and spices help flavor foods with origins all over the world.
1. Saffron. Saffron is derived from the stigmas of the crocus flower and is known for its intense, earthy flavor. It is also the most expensive spice in the world, with a pound of saffron costing thousands of dollars.
The health benefits of spices are varied. They help make up for nutritional supplements, help strengthen the immune system and help control blood sugar and blood cholesterol levels. Spices also have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, and they help prevent various diseases such as Alzheimer's and cancer.
Which were the important spices that were in great demand in the Europ... The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe. Spices such as cinnamon, cassia, cardamom, ginger, pepper, and turmeric were known and used in antiquity for commerce in the Eastern World.
The spice trade was a key in shaping the world economy. It created a network of trade routes that connected Asia, Africa, and Europe, leading to the development of trade centres, such as Venice and Amsterdam, and the growth of wealthy merchant families.
It takes 70,000 saffron crocus flowers to produce just one pound of saffron threads, making saffron the world's most expensive spice. Saffron can only be harvested and processed by hand as its petals must be peeled away gently to collect the delicate saffron threads.
Why did rich people stop using spices?
"So the elite recoiled from the increasing popularity of spices," Ray says. "They moved on to an aesthetic theory of taste. Rather than infusing food with spice, they said things should taste like themselves. Meat should taste like meat, and anything you add only serves to intensify the existing flavors."